(Naples, 7 December 1598 – Rome, 28 November 1680) also spelled Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo - was an Italian artist who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age and also a prominent architect. In addition he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets.


A student of Classical sculpture, Bernini possessed the unique ability to capture, in marble, the essence of a narrative moment with a dramatic naturalistic realism which was almost shocking. This ensured that he effectively became the successor of Michelangelo, far outshining other sculptors of his generation, including his rival, Alessandro Algardi. His talent extended beyond the confines of his sculpture to consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to synthesise sculpture, painting and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the art historian, Irving Lavin, the ‘unity of the visual arts’.A deeply religious man, working in Counter Reformation Rome, Bernini used light as an important metaphorical device in the perception of his religious settings; often it was hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship, or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative.


Bernini was also a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture along with his contemporaries, the architect, Francesco Borromini and the painter and architect, Pietro da Cortona. Early in their careers they had all worked at the same time at the Palazzo Barberini, initially under Carlo Maderno and on his death, under Bernini. Later on, however, they were in competition for commissions and fierce rivalries developed, particularly between Bernini and Borromini.Despite the arguably greater architectural inventiveness of Borromini and Cortona, Bernini’s artistic pre-eminence, particularly during the reigns of popes Urban VIII (1623–44) and Alexander VII (1655–1665), meant he was able to secure the most important commission in Rome of the day, St. Peter's Basilica. His design of the Piazza San Pietro in front of the Basilica is one of his most innovative and successful architectural designs.


During his long career, Bernini received many important commissions, many associated with the papacy. At an early age, he came to the attention of the papal nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese, and in 1621, at the age of only twenty three, he was knighted by Pope Gregory XV. Following his accession to the papacy, Urban VIII is reported to have said, "Your luck is great to see Cardinal Maffeo Barberini Pope, Cavaliere; but ours is much greater to have Cavalier Bernini alive in our pontificate". Although he did not fare so well during the reign of Innocent X, under Alexander VII, he once again regained pre-eminent artistic domination and continued to be held in high regard by Clement IX.


Bernini and other artists fell from favour in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque. It is only from the late nineteenth century that art historical scholarship, in seeking an understanding of artistic output in the cultural context in which it was produced, has come to recognise Bernini’s achievements and restore his artistic reputation.

Aeneas_and_Anchises
Altar_of_the_Cappella_del_Sacramento
Altar_of_the_Cappella_del_Sacramento_detail
Apollo_and_Daphne
Bernini_Design_for_the_Equestrian_Monument_of_Louis_XIV
Bernini_Portrait_of_a_Man_with_a_Moustache
Bernini_Portrait_of_a_Man_with_a_Moustache2
Bernini_Portrait_of_a_Young_Man
Bernini_Portrait_of_a_Young_Man_(Self_Portrait)
Bernini_Study_for_Constantine_the_Great
Bernini_St_Jerome_Penitent
Bust_of_Camilla_Barberini_nee_Barbadori
Bust_of_Pope_Gregory_XV
Cardinal_Scipione_Borghese
Charity_Tomb_of_Urban_VIII
Constantine_the_Great
Medusa
Memorial_Bust_of_Gabriele_Fonseca
Portrait_Bust_of_Cardinal_Richelieu
Portrait_Bust_of_Pedro_de_Foix_Montoya
Rape_of_Proserpine
Saint_Bibiana
St_Longinus
The_Blessed_Lodovica_Albertoni
The_Ecstasy_of_St_Teresa